Parameterized quantum circuits (PQCs) are a central component of many variational quantum algorithms, yet there is a lack of understanding of how their parameterization impacts algorithm performance. We initiate this discussion by using principal bundles to geometrically characterize two-qubit PQCs. On the base manifold, we use the Mannoury-Fubini-Study metric to find a simple equation relating the Ricci scalar (geometry) and concurrence (entanglement). By calculating the Ricci scalar during a variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) optimization process, this offers us a new perspective to how and why Quantum Natural Gradient outperforms the standard gradient descent. We argue that the key to the Quantum Natural Gradient’s superior performance is its ability to find regions of high negative curvature early in the optimization process. These regions of high negative curvature appear to be important in accelerating the optimization process.
Dax Enshan Koh, Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)